CLASS: SENIOR SIX
TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT I: EUROPEAN LITERARY TRADITIONS
UNIT II: STRUCTURE IN MODERN PROSE
UNIT III: ELEGY AND EPITAPH
UNIT IV: LIMERICKS- RHYTHM AND RHYME
UNIT V: FREE VERSE
UNIT VI: THEATRE OF THE ABSURD
UNIT VII: RADIO AND TELEVISION DRAMA
UNIT VIII: PERFORMING DRAMA
UNIT IV: LIMERICKS- RHYME AND RHYTHM
IV.0. A LIMERICK
A limerick is a humorous, nonsensical poem that contains five lines with a specific rhyme scheme of AA BB A. Limerick poetry is also often referred to as nonsense poetry and it is typically used for fun and entertaining events.
It is said to have started in Ireland. Limericks are often characterized by the use of humour, exaggeration/ hyperbole and a strict rhyme scheme of AA BB A.
“There was an Old Man with a beard,
Who said, ‘It is just as I feared!
Two Owls and a Hen,
Four Larks and a Wren,
Have all built their nests in my beard!”
There was an Old Person whose habits,
Induced him to feed upon rabbits;
When he’d eaten eighteen,
He turned perfectly green,
Upon which he relinquished those habits.
A standard limerick has the following features
- A one-stanza poem with five lines, no more, no less.
- Made up of thirty-nine syllables in total (9-9-6-6-9).
- The first, the second and the fifth lines are long and rhyme.
- Those three lines have three feet of three syllables each.
- The third and fourth lines are shorter and they rhyme too.
- The two lines have only two feet of three syllables.
- Have rhyme which creates a rhythmic pattern.
- Are often humorous/ funny and sometimes obscene.
Rhyme is a repetition of similar sounding words in two or more words, most often in the final syllables or lines in poems and songs. A rhyme is a tool that uses repeating patterns to create rhythm or musicality in poems. This differentiates poems from prose. Its purpose is to give a pleasing effect to a poem, which makes its recital an enjoyable experience. This makes memorization of the poem easy.
Usually, rhyme occurs at the end of lines in a poem, but it can also occur in the middle. If it occurs in the middle, it is called internal rhyme. All limericks have the same end rhyme scheme which is AABBA.
In the future, the worst kind of crime,
Will be working the streets as a mime,
If you paint your face white,
They’ll arrest you on sight,
An example of justice sublime.
The word rhythm is derived from the Greek word, “rythmos” which means, “measured motion.” Rhythm can also be referred to as a literally device that demonstrates the long and short patterns through stressed and unstressed syllables, particularly in verse poems.
Rhythm refers to a strong regular repeated pattern of sound in poetry. It is also a series of stressed or accented syllables in a group of words, arranged so that the reader expects a similar series to follow.
Rhythm is what we dance to in a song. It is the regular beat that defines the song. Rhythm that can be measured is called meter.
Rhythm is an important part of the structure of a poem. In writing poetry, rhythm acts as a beat in music. Every poem that is not free verse has a type of rhythm. It is used to captivate the readers by giving a musical effect to a literary piece.
Da Da Dah Da Da Dah Da Da Dah
Da Da Dah Da Da Dah Da Da Dah
Da Da Dah Da Da Dah
Da Da Dah Da Da Dah
Da Da Dah Da Da Dah Da Da Dah
IV.3. POETIC DEVICES
Hyperbole refers to the use of overstatement or exaggeration for the purpose of creating emphasis or humour, but it is not intended to be taken literally. It is used to create an amusing effect, or to emphasize our meaning.
However, writers or poets use hyperbole to make common human feelings remarkable and intense to such an extent that they do not remain ordinary.
The usage of hyperbole develops contrasts when one thing is described with an over-statement, and the other thing is presented normally. This poetic device is employed to catch the reader’s attention.
There once was a young lady named bright
Whose speed was much faster than light
She set out one day
In a relative way
And returned on the previous night.
I’ll love you, dear, I’ll love you
Till China and Africa meet,
And the river jumps over the mountain
And the salmon sing in the street.
It’s been ages and ages since I last saw you.’
She’s as thin as a toothpick.
He was skinny enough to jump through a keyhole
I ate so much that I weigh more than a whale.
His stomach is a bottomless pit.
If I can’t get a smartphone, I will die.
My mom is going to kill me.
These shoes are killing me.
This is so boring, just kill me now!
It was so cold. Polar bears wore jackets
It feels like my birthday will never come.
I had a ton of chores to do.
I’m so hungry that I could eat a horse
The church was decorated with a million flowers.
Grandfather is older than dirt.
My dad is always working.
I’ve told you a million times not to do that.
We waited for centuries this match.
It will only take me two seconds to get there.
You’re walking slower than a snail.
Rehema never stops talking.
Euphemism refers to a use of polite language with the purpose of not offending or appearing unpleasant. It is used to mislead the readers/listeners’ understanding trying to spare their feelings about reality.
Euphemism depends largely on the social context of the speakers and writers, where they feel the need to replace certain words that may prove embarrassing for particular listeners or readers in a particular situation.
- W.C (toilet)
- He is mentally challenged (stupid)
- They passed away (they died)
- Put to sleep instead of euthanize
- Pregnancy termination instead of abortion
- Make love instead of having sex
- To sleep with someone instead of having sex with someone
- Letting someone go instead of firing someone
- On the streets instead of homeless
- Correctional facility instead of jail
- Relocation center instead of prison camp
- Taking an early retirement instead of got fired
Euphemism helps writers convey those ideas that have become a social taboo, and are too embarrassing to mention directly. Writers skillfully choose appropriate words to refer to and discuss a subject indirectly that otherwise might not be published due to strict social censorship, such as for reasons of religious fanaticism, political theories, sexuality, and death. Euphemism is therefore a useful tool that allows writers to write figuratively about difficult issues.
Juxtaposition is a literary technique in which two or more ideas, places, characters, and their actions are placed side by side in a narrative or a poem, for the purpose of developing comparisons and contrasts.
In literature, juxtaposition is a useful device for writers to portray their characters in great detail, to create suspense, and to achieve a rhetorical effect. Poets use juxtaposition to highlight differences between two words or idea.
For example, a writer can make readers sense “goodness” in a particular character by placing him or her side-by-side with a character that is predominantly “evil.” Consequently, goodness in one character is highlighted by evil in the other character. Juxtaposition in this case is useful in the development of characters.
Litotes is a poetic device which is a form of understatement in which sentiment is expressed ironically by negating its contrary. It is used to invocate the absence of thing or quality to soften harsh phrases, and sometimes for a bitingly ironic touch.
- They aren’t unhappy with the presentation. (they are happy)
- It wasn’t a terrible trip. (it was wonderful)
- She’s not unkind. (she is kind)
- The two concepts are not unlike each other.(they are alike)
- Her cooking isn’t terrible, exactly. ( it’s actually great.)
- Ireland is no ordinary country. (It’s special.)
- Your commentary on their relationship was less than smart.(it was stupid.)
- She wasn’t a bad dancer.(she was a good dancer.)
- He’s not unlike his older brother. (he’s similar.)
- They spent seven months apart; that’s no small amount of time.(that’s a long time.)
- They don’t exactly have an ordinary relationship. (their relationship is different.)
- Your kitchen isn’t disordered. (it’s organized.)
- You won’t be sorry. (you’ll be glad.)
- His statements are not without truth.(they are true.)