CLASS: SENIOR SIX
TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT I: EUROPEAN LITERARY TRADITIONS
UNIT II: STRUCTURE IN MODERN PROSE
UNIT III: ELEGY AND EPITAPH
UNIT IV: LIMERICKS- RHYTHM AND RHYME
UNIT V: FREE VERSE
UNIT VI: THEATRE OF THE ABSURD
UNIT VII: RADIO AND TELEVISION DRAMA
UNIT VIII: PERFORMING DRAMA
UNIT V: FREE VERSE
Free verse is poetry that does not have regular patterns of rhyme and meter. The lines in free verse often flow more naturally than do rhymed. Free verse poems do not follow any rules. Their creation is completely in the hands of the poet.
Ex: Bus stop by Michelle Friend
I saw a nice boy
with long sideburns
and short hair and blue suit
he stood in front of me in the bus queue
when the bus came
he stood back
to let me climb into the bus in front of him
i turned to thank him
he gave me a radiant smile
it warmed my heart and made my day beautiful
and then (Wrapped in a haze of rosy dreams)
and fell into the bus
flat on my stupid face
Free verse poetry features
- Free verse poems have no regular meter or rhythm.
- They do not follow a proper rhyme scheme; these poems do not have any set rules.
- This type of poem is based on normal pauses and natural rhythmical, as compared to the artificial constraints of traditional or normal poetry. That is why it is called “Free verse”.
Free verse is commonly used in contemporary poetry. Some poets have taken this technique as a freedom from rhythm and rhyme, because it gives a greater freedom for choosing words, and conveying their meanings to the listener or the readers through intonation instead of meter/rhythm.
Since it depends upon patterned elements like sounds, phrases, sentences, and words, it is free of artificiality of a typical poetic expression.
V.1. POETIC DEVICES
- Poetic line
A poetic line is a subdivision of a poem, specifically a group of words arranged into a row that ends for a reason other than the right-hand margin. This reason could be that the lines are arranged to have a certain number of syllables, a certain number of stresses, or of metrical feet; it could be that they are arranged so that they rhyme, whether they are of equal length or not.
But it is important to remember that the poet has chosen to make the line a certain length, or to make the line-break at a certain point. This line-break is where a reader has to turn back to the start of the next line.
Lines are the text that takes up one line, or row, in a poem. Poems can have any number of lines. Some poets use short lines, some use long, some set all the lines on the left side of the page, and some indent lines differently all over the page.
The relationship between the poetic line (including its length and positioning and how it fits into other lines) and the content of a poem is a major aspect of poetry. Free verse poem lines do not follow the rules, and have no rhyme or rhythm; but they are still an artistic expression. They are sometimes thought to be a modern form of poetry.
Free verse is just as the title says, it’s free. It may or may not have punctuation. It depends on the style of writing. Some poets that argue that poetry has to abide by normal grammatical rules, but free verse can be portrayed as the poet intends. Free verse has no set pattern and no rules that bind it as other forms of poetry do.
It depends on what feels more comfortable to the poet whether or not punctuation is used. Some free verse poems are just meant to flow freely, but if you want to add some spice you can add punctuation.
Oxymoron is a poetic device in which two opposite ideas are joined to create an effect. The common oxymoron phrase is a combination of a noun preceded by an adjective with contrasting meanings. An oxymoron may be used to call attention to the dual nature of an object or concept, etc. It may also present a concept in a new light to emphasize the poet’s creativity.
we stand and watch
on fireless fireplaces.
- Sad joy
- Wise fool
- Cruel kindness
- Open secret
- Foolish wisdom
- The ugly beauty
- Tragic comedy
- Original copies
- Unpopular celebrities
- Hell’s angels
- Old news
- Living dead
- Free trade
- Nice death
- Student teacher
- Parting is such a sweet sorrow (in Romeo and Juliet),
- There was a love-hate relationship between those neighbours.
- Paid volunteers were working for the company.
- All the politicians agreed to disagree.
- There was a deafening silence.
Paradox is a wise saying that on the surface appears self-contradictory, but when examined in deep, reveals a fundamental truth.
Poets use paradox to give pleasure to the reader. Readers enjoy more when they extract the hidden meanings out of the writing rather than something presented to them directly. Paradox is used to attract attention, secure emphasis or to make the readers think deeper and harder to enjoy the real message of the poem.
And the wild white lilies
Are shouting silently
The son is the father of the man
I said he made chairs, but I did not say he was a carpenter
You can save money by spending it.
I know one thing; that I know nothing.
This is the beginning of the end.
“I can resist anything but temptation.”
Here are the rules: Ignore all rules.
I only message those who do not message.
He was glad to finally be punished for his crimes.
War is peace
Freedom is slavery
Love puts in when friendship is gone
Good fences make good neighbours