The word “genre” refers to a kind or a category of literature. Written literature is divided into three broad genres or categories based on how or the way words are written and sometimes on the kind of meaning an author wants to portray. Those genres are prose, poetry and drama.
Prose comes from the Latin “prosa oratio” meaning “straightforward discourse.” Prose is the usual or the normal form of written, or spoken language. It is a form of writing that is natural and uses grammatical structure. Most forms of writing and speaking are done in prose. It is written in full grammatical sentences and paragraphs.
It is the most common form of writing which is usually straightforward and may utilize figurative language. This is what we see in novels, novellas, and short stories. Each of this is made up of a setting, a plot, characters, themes and stylistic devices
Prose can also be defined as:
> a form of language that has no formal metrical structure. It applies a natural flow of speech, and ordinary grammatical structure, rather than rhythmic structure.
> the ordinary or the normal form of written or spoken language that follows regular grammatical conventions and has no metrical pattern.
> Prose practices a natural flow of speech and common grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic formation. It also tends to focus on plot and characters.
Varieties of prose include novels, novellas, and short stories, journals, diaries, letters, essays, letters, travelogues, biographies, autobiographies, fairy tales, fables, and speeches
Kino awakened in the near dark. The stars still shone and the day had drawn only a pale wash of light in the lower sky to the east. The roosters had been crowing for some time, and the early pigs were already beginning their ceaseless turning of twigs and bits of wood to see whether anything to eat had been overlooked. Outside the brush house in the tuna clump, a covey of little birds chittered and flurried with their wings.
Kino’s eyes opened, and he looked first at the lightening square which was the door and then he looked at the hanging box where Coyotito slept. And last he turned his head to Juana, his wife, who lay beside him on the mat, her blue head-shawl over her nose and over her breasts and around the small of her back. Juana’s eyes were open too. Kino could never remember seeing them closed when he awakened. Her dark eyes made little reflected stars. She was looking at him as she was always looking at him when he awakened.
Extract from “The Pearl” by John Steinbeck
Poetry derived from the Greek “poiesis”, which means “making”. It is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the understandable meaning. It is the art of rhythmical composition, written or spoken, for exciting pleasure by beautiful, imaginative, or elevated thoughts.
Poetry is also considered as a type of literature based on the interplay of words and rhythm. It often employs rhyme and meter. In poetry, words are strung together to form sounds, images, and ideas that might be too complex or abstract to describe directly. Simply, poetry refers to literature which is written in verse form. It is a special kind of writing in which words, pictures and sounds combine making a special emotional effect or spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions.
Poetry is regarded as the oldest form of literature. Before writing was invented, oral stories were commonly put into some kind of poetic form; which made them easier to memorize and recite. It has been generally agreed that all music is poetry. Poetry is meant to be recited because it uses words and sounds to excite us making us dance or nod. Even though poetry is meant to be recited but often, it is written down. Poetry is almost always written in verses (lines) and stanzas and the one who writes or recite poetry is a poet.
Thank You, Teachers
Teachers are keys
That unlock the student’s mind.
You are guides who mold our mind.
You are one of a kind.
You are like a shepherd
Who guides the sheep
To the right path.
You, teachers, turn the pages
Of the great books.
You train us well
To reach great heights.
Thank you, teachers,
For all you have done.
In the group of many
You are one.
by Meghana Vincent
From late Latin drāma, “play, drama,” from Greek drâma (dramatos) “action, deed; play, spectacle,” from drāo “to do, make, act, perform, achieve” especially some great deed, whether good or bad.
Drama refers to literature which is written in dialogue form. It is a composition, normally in prose, telling a story and intended to be represented by actors impersonating the characters and speaking the dialogue. This form of fictional representation through dialogue and performance; is also an imitation of different actions. We can also explain drama as a type of a play written for theatre, television, radio, and film.
Drama should be acted before the audience in order to communicate a message. It includes conflict of characters that perform in front of the audience on stage. Any text that is meant to be performed rather than read can be considered as drama. Drama are also frequently called plays and the one who writes drama/play is called a dramatist or playwright.
PARRIS: I saw Tituba waving her arms over the fire when I came on you; why were she doing that? And I heard a screeching and gibberish comin‘ from her mouth…
ABIGAIL: She always sings her Barbados songs and we dance.
PARRIS: I cannot blink what I saw, Abigail-for my enemies will not blink it. And I thought I saw a….someone naked running through the trees!
ABIGAIL: No one was naked! You mistake yourself, Uncle!
PARRIS: I saw it! Now tell me true, Abigail. Now my ministry‘s at stake; my ministry and perhaps your cousin‘s life…..whatever abomination you have done, give me all of it now, for I dare not be taken unaware when I go before them down there.
ABIGAIL: There is nothin‘ more. I swear it, Uncle.
Extract from “The Crucible” by Arthur Miller, ACT I: Scene 1